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1 Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, zoetrope, flip book, praxinoscope and film.
2 The stroboscopic animation principle was also applied in the zoetrope (1866), the flip book (1868) and the praxinoscope (1877).
3 Earlier moving images in for instance phantasmagoria shows, the phénakisticope, the zoetrope and Émile Reynaud's Théâtre Optique consisted of hand-drawn images.
4 He decided he would name his future studio "Zoetrope" after receiving a gift of zoetropes from Mogens Scot-Hansen, founder of a studio called Lanterna Film and owner of a famous collection of early motion picture-making equipment.
5 However, in 1969, with equipment flowing in and no mansion found yet, the first home for Zoetrope Studio became a warehouse in San Francisco on Folsom Street.
6 His musical fantasy One from the Heart, although pioneering the use of video-editing techniques which are standard practice in the film industry today, ended with a disastrous box-office gross of US$636,796 against a US$26 million budget, far from enough to recoup the costs incurred in the production of the movie and he was forced to sell his 23-acre Zoetrope Studio in 1983.
7 Zoetrope Studios finally filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1990, after which its name was changed to American Zoetrope.
8 These discussions led to negotiations for Coppola to both produce and direct the Pinocchio project for Warners, as well as The Secret Garden (which was made in 1993 and produced by American Zoetrope, but directed by Agnieszka Holland) and Hoover, which never came to fruition.
9 Under their development agreement, Coppola and Sagan were to split proceeds from the project with American Zoetrope and Children's Television Workshop Productions, as well as any novel Sagan would write.
10 In August 1999, Coppola was brought in by MGM to supervise another re-editing of the film Supernova costing $1 million at his American Zoetrope facility in Northern California.
11 Shortly after completion of production they brought the finished film to Warner Bros., along with several other scripts for potential projects at their newly founded company, American Zoetrope.
12 However, studio executives strongly disliked all the scripts, including THX and demanded that Coppola repay the $300,000 they had loaned him for the Zoetrope studio, as well as insisting on cutting five minutes from the film.
13 The debt nearly closed Zoetrope and forced Coppola to reluctantly focus on The Godfather.
14 His company American Zoetrope also administers the Zoetrope Virtual Studio, a complete motion picture production studio for members only.
15 In San Francisco, Coppola owns a restaurant named Cafe Zoetrope, located in the Sentinel Building where American Zoetrope is based.
16 In 1997, Coppola founded Zoetrope: All-Story, a literary magazine devoted to short stories and design.
17 After graduating from the University of Southern California in 1967, Lucas co-founded American Zoetrope with filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola.
18 In 1969, Lucas co-founded the studio American Zoetrope with Coppola, hoping to create a liberating environment for filmmakers to direct outside the perceived oppressive control of the Hollywood studio system.
19 Coppola thought Lucas's Electronic Labyrinth could be adapted into his first full-length feature film, which was produced by American Zoetrope as THX 1138, but was not a success.
20 In the same year, he was invited by Francis Ford Coppola to recruit a production staff for American Zoetrope's One from the Heart (1982).
21 A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.
22 The name zoetrope was composed from the Greek root words ζωή zoe, "life" and τρόπος tropos, "turning" as a translation of "wheel of life".
23 The zoetrope consists of a cylinder with cuts vertically in the sides.
24 From the late 19th century, devices working on similar principles have been developed, named analogously as linear zoetropes and 3D zoetropes, with traditional zoetropes referred to as "cylindrical zoetropes" if distinction is needed.
25 The zoetrope works on the same principle as its predecessor, the phenakistoscope, but is more convenient and allows the animation to be viewed by several people at the same time.
26 An earthenware bowl from Iran, over 5000 years old, could be considered a predecessor of the zoetrope.
27 Possibly the same device was referred to as "umbrella lamp" and mentioned as "a variety of zoetrope" which "may well have originated in China" by historian of Chinese technology Joseph Needham.
28 None of these lamps are known to have featured sequential substitution of images depicting motion and thus don't display animation in the way that the zoetrope does.
29 A similar device inside a small zoetrope drum with four slits, was marketed around 1900 by a Parisian company as L'Animateur (or The Animator).
30 Horner's revolving drum had viewing slits between the pictures, instead of above as the later zoetrope variations would have.