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1 Risk factors during pregnancy include certain infections, such as rubella, toxins including valproic acid, alcohol, cocaine, pesticides, lead, and air pollution, fetal growth restriction, and autoimmune diseases.
2 Lithium and the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproic acid are classed as mood stabilizers due to their effect on the mood states in bipolar disorder.
3 Drugs that are more rapidly metabolized with carbamazepine include warfarin, lamotrigine, phenytoin, theophylline, and valproic acid.
4 Valproic acid and valnoctamide both inhibit microsomal epoxide hydrolase (MEH), the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of carbamazepine-10,11 epoxide into inactive metabolites.
5 By inhibiting MEH, valproic acid and valnoctamide cause a build-up of the active metabolite, prolonging the effects of carbamazepine and delaying its excretion.
6 Conversely, endogeneous GHB production in those taking valproic acid will be inhibited via inhibition of the conversion from succinic acid semialdehyde to GHB.
7 Sophy recommended Busey take valproic acid (Depakote), with which Busey agreed.
8 Histone deacetylase inhibitors in development include valproic acid, vorinostat, belinostat, panobinostat, entinostat, and romidepsin.
9 For valproic acid, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, however, their mood-stabilizing effects may be more related to effects on the GABAergic system.
10 Valproic acid, a widely prescribed anticonvulsant is a derivative of valeric acid.
11 Hypokinesia and rigidity, especially in juvenile cases, can be treated with antiparkinsonian drugs, and myoclonic hyperkinesia can be treated with valproic acid.
12 Valproic acid, one of the most commonly prescribed epilepsy treatment drugs, also used to treat certain psychological conditions such as bipolar disorder, is a known inhibitor of folic acid, and as such, has been shown to cause birth defects, including neural tube defects, plus increased risk for children having cognitive impairment and autism.
13 Valproate (VPA) and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and prevent migraine headaches.
14 Valproic acid is a branched short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) made from valeric acid.
15 Valproic acid (VPA) is an organic weak acid.
16 A 2016 systematic review compared the efficacy of valproate as an add-on for people with schizophrenia: Based upon five case reports, valproic acid may have efficacy in controlling the symptoms of the dopamine dysregulation syndrome that arise from the treatment of Parkinson's disease with levodopa.
17 Most common adverse effects include: Serious adverse effects include: Valproic acid has a black box warning for hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, and fetal abnormalities.
18 There is evidence that valproic acid may cause premature growth plate ossification in children and adolescents, resulting in decreased height.
19 Valproic acid can also cause mydriasis, a dilation of the pupils.
20 There is evidence that shows valproic acid may increase the chance of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder.
21 It may also interact with: Excessive amounts of valproic acid can result in sleepiness, tremor, stupor, respiratory depression, coma, metabolic acidosis, and death.
22 In general, serum or plasma valproic acid concentrations are in a range of 20–100 mg/l during controlled therapy, but may reach 150–1500 mg/l following acute poisoning.
23 Salivary levels of valproic acid correlate poorly with serum levels, partly due to valproate's weak acid property (pKa of 4.9).
24 The inhibition of histone deacetylase, by promoting more transcriptionally active chromatin structures, likely presents the epigenetic mechanism for regulation of many of the neuroprotective effects attributed to valproic acid.
25 Valproic acid has been found to be an antagonist of the androgen and progesterone receptors, and hence as a nonsteroidal antiandrogen and antiprogestogen, at concentrations much lower than therapeutic serum levels.
26 These actions are likely to be involved in the reproductive endocrine disturbances seen with valproic acid treatment.
27 Valproic acid has been found to directly stimulate androgen biosynthesis in the gonads via inhibition of histone deacetylases and has been associated with hyperandrogenism in women and increased 4-androstenedione levels in men.
28 High rates of polycystic ovary syndrome and menstrual disorders have also been observed in women treated with valproic acid.
29 Some of the known metabolites of valproate by these enzymes and uncharacterized enzymes include: 2-ene-valproic acid, 3Z-ene-valproic acid, 3E-ene-valproic acid, 4-ene-valproic acid, valproic acid β-O-glucuronide, 3-oxovalproic acid, 3-hydroxyvalproic acid, 4-hydroxyvalproic acid, 5-hydroxyvalproic acid, and valproyl-CoA, among others.
30 Valproic acid is a branched short-chain fatty acid and a derivative of valeric acid.