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the cloacal glands in a sentence

1. Fertilisation is likely to be external as sirenids lack the cloacal glands used by male salamandrids to produce spermatophores and the females lack spermathecae for sperm storage.

2. Pheromones play an important part in the process and may be produced by the abdominal gland in males and by the cloacal glands and skin in both sexes.

3. Any attempt to pick up a ladder snake may be greeted by sharp bites and also the emptying of the cloacal glands, releasing an offensive odour.

4. This colourless compound was isolated in 2009 from the cloacal glands of the tuatara, a lizard-like reptile native to New Zealand.