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1 After the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate, numerous local dynasties emerged, including the Aghlabids, Almohads, Abdalwadid, Zirids, Rustamids, Hammadids, Almoravids and the Fatimids.
2 The Fatimid caliphate began to collapse when its governors the Zirids seceded.
3 The Zirids, however, were ultimately defeated ushering in an adoption of Arab customs and culture.
4 Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, the Zirids had already lost control of Algiers to their cousins the Hammadids in 1014.
5 Having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Berber Zirids for abandoning Shias, they travelled westwards.
6 The Banu Hilal quickly defeated the Zirids and deeply weakened the neighboring Hammadids.
7 Later, various Berbers, Arabs, Persian Muslim states, Sunni, Shia or Ibadi communities were established that ruled parts of modern-day of Algeria: including the Rustamids, Ifranids, Fatimids, Maghrawas, Zirids, Hammadids, Almoravid, Almohads, Hafsids, and Ziyyanids.
8 With their interest focused primarily on Egypt and Muslim lands beyond, the Fatimids left the rule of most of Algeria to the Zirids and Hammadid (972–1148), a Berber dynasty that centered significant local power in Algeria for the first time, but who were still at war with Banu Ifran (kingdom of Tlemcen) and Maghraoua (942-1068).
9 The Fatimids had assigned the Zirids, a Zenaga Berber clan centered in Ifriqiya, to watch their western dominions.
10 The Zirids, however, were unable to prevent Morocco from spinning out of their control and crumbling into the hands of a collection of local Zenata Berber chieftains, most of them clients of the Caliph of Cordoba, such as the Maghrawa in the region of Fez and itinerant rivals, the Banu Ifran to the east.
11 The Banu Hilal reduced the Zirids to a few coastal towns and took over much of the plains;
12 The most notable are the Zirids (Ifriqiya, 973–1148), the Hammadids (Western Ifriqiya, 1014–1152), the Almoravid dynasty (Morocco and al-Andalus, 1040–1147), the Almohads (Morocco and al-Andalus, 1147–1248), the Hafsids (Ifriqiya, 1229–1574), the Zianids (Tlemcen, 1235–1556), the Marinids (Morocco, 1248–1465) and the Wattasids (Morocco, 1471–1554).
13 The Zirids in turn divided their territories, assigning some to the Hammadid branch of the family to govern.
14 After the fall of Cordoba, the Zirids took over Granada in 1013, forming the Zirid kingdom of Granada.
15 The Saqaliba Khayran, with his own Umayyad figurehead Abd ar-Rahman IV al-Murtada, attempted to seize Granada from the Zirids in 1018 but failed.
16 The Hammudids remained in Malaga until expelled by the Zirids in 1056.
17 The Zirids of Granada controlled Malaga until 1073, after which separate Zirid kings retained control over the taifas of Granada and Malaga until the Almoravid conquest.
18 their vassals and later successors in Ifriqiya the Zirids (973–1160) were also Sanhaja.
19 Civic security was chronically poor, due to political quarrels between the Zirids and the Hammadids, and attacks from Sunni states to the west.
20 Although the Maghrib remained submerged in political confusion, at first the Fatimid province of Ifriqiya continued relatively prosperous under the Zirids.
21 To compensate, the Zirids encouraged the commerce of their coastal cities, which did begin to quicken;
22 In 1048, for economic and popular reasons, the Zirids dramatically broke with the Shi'a Fatimid suzerainty from Cairo;
23 instead the Zirids chose to become Sunni (always favored by most Maghribi Muslims) and declaring their allegiance to the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad.
24 In retaliation, the Fatimids sent against the Zirids an invasion of nomadic Arabians who had already migrated into Egypt;
25 Even after the fall of the Zirids the Banu Hilal were a source of disorder, as in the 1184 insurrection of the Banu Ghaniya.
26 Substantially weakened, the Zirids lingered on, while the regional economy declined, with civil society adrift.
27 Although originally a client of the Fatimid Shi'a Caliphate in Egypt, eventually the Zirids expelled the Fatimids from Ifriqiya.
28 To punish the Zirids, he unleashed the Banu Hilal Arab tribe on Ifriqiya;
29 Exposed to violence from the hostile tribes that settled around the city, the population of Tunis repudiated the authority of the Zirids and swore allegiance to the Hammadid prince El Nacer ibn Alennas, who was based in Béjaïa, in 1059.
30 In the 11th century, reigning over Ifriqiya, the Zirids somehow recognised the sovereignty of the caliph of Cairo.