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1 The eutectic mixture melts at −12.6 °C. An alloy of 41% caesium, 47% sodium, and 12% potassium has the lowest known melting point of any metal or alloy, −78 °C. The intermetallic compounds of the alkali metals with the heavier group 13 elements (aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium), such as NaTl, are poor conductors or semiconductors, unlike the normal alloys with the preceding elements, implying that the alkali metal involved has lost an electron to the Zintl anions involved.
2 Under high pressure the boron–boron bonding in the lithium borides changes from following Wade's rules to forming Zintl anions like the rest of group 13. Lithium and sodium react with carbon to form acetylides, Li2C2 and Na2C2, which can also be obtained by reaction of the metal with acetylene.
3 The chemistry of alkali metal germanides, involving the germanide ion Ge and other cluster (Zintl) ions such as Ge4, Ge9, Ge9, and [(Ge9)2], is largely analogous to that of the corresponding silicides.
4 Alkali metal stannides are mostly ionic, sometimes with the stannide ion (Sn), and sometimes with more complex Zintl ions such as Sn9, which appears in tetrapotassium nonastannide (K4Sn9).
5 alkali metal plumbides have complex Zintl ions, such as Pb9.
6 Indeed, they have some metallic properties, and the alkali metal antimonides of stoichiometry MSb involve antimony atoms bonded in a spiral Zintl structure.
7 Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see Van Arkel–Ketelaar triangle for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds).
8 Negative oxidation states can occur as Zintl phases, as either free lead anions, as in Ba2Pb, with lead formally being lead(−IV), or in oxygen-sensitive ring-shaped or polyhedral cluster ions such as the trigonal bipyramidal Pb5 ion, where two lead atoms are lead(−I) and three are lead(0).
9 Due to its full d-subshell, silver in its main +1 oxidation state exhibits relatively few properties of the transition metals proper from groups 4 to 10, forming rather unstable organometallic compounds, forming linear complexes showing very low coordination numbers like 2, and forming an amphoteric oxide as well as Zintl phases like the post-transition metals.
10 When tellurium is treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, the result is a red solution of the Zintl ion, Te4.
11 The oxidation of tellurium by AsF5 in liquid SO2 produces the same square planar cation, in addition to the trigonal prismatic, yellow-orange Te6: Other tellurium Zintl cations include the polymeric Te7 and the blue-black Te8, consisting of two fused 5-membered tellurium rings.
12 Quite recently, the aromaticity of planar Si5 rings occurring in the Zintl phase Li12Si7 was experimentally evinced by Li solid-state NMR.