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1 Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird.
2 This led to them being greeted with "Yellowhammer", and the name later was applied to all Alabama troops in the Confederate Army.
3 Many Slovenian surnames are named after animals (Medved – bear, Volk, Vovk or Vouk – wolf, Golob – pigeon, Strnad - yellowhammer, Orel – eagle, Lisjak – fox, or Zajec – rabbit, etc.) or plants Pšenica - wheat, Slak - bindweed, Hrast - oak, etc.
4 It is an important area for rare Dutch meadow birds, including the grey partridge, yellowhammer, and Eurasian skylark.
5 In a wintering population in Kurgaldga Nature Reserve of Kazakhstan, the main foods were grey red-backed voles at 47.4%, winter white dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus) at 18.4%, steppe pika (Ochotona pusilla) at 7.9%, muskrat at 7.9%, Eurasian skylark (Alauda arvensis) at 7.9%, grey partridge at 5.3%, and both steppe polecat (Mustela eversmanii) and yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) at 2.6% On the Kuril Islands, wintering snowy owls main foods were reported as tundra voles, brown rats, ermines and whimbrel, in roughly that order.
6 The yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) is a passerine bird in the bunting family that is native to Eurasia and has been introduced to New Zealand and Australia.
7 The male yellowhammer has a bright yellow head, streaked brown back, chestnut rump, and yellow under parts.
8 The yellowhammer is common in open areas with some shrubs or trees, and forms small flocks in winter.
9 Yellowhammers feed on the ground, usually in flocks outside the breeding season.
10 Changes to agricultural practices have led to population declines in western Europe, but its large numbers and huge range mean that the yellowhammer is classed as being of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
11 Within its genus, the yellowhammer is most closely related to the pine bunting, with which it forms a superspecies;
12 Where their ranges meet, the yellowhammer and pine bunting interbreed;
13 the yellowhammer is dominant, and the hybrid zone is moving further east.
14 The yellowhammer was described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae under its current scientific name.
15 There are currently 3 recognised subspecies of yellowhammer: The yellowhammer is a large bunting, 16–16.5 cm (6.3–6.5 in) long, with a 23–29.5 cm (9.1–11.6 in) wingspan;
16 Young and female yellowhammers can be distinguished from cirl buntings by the grey-brown rump of the latter species.
17 Male hybrids with pine buntings are typically white-faced and have some yellow on the head, under parts or flight feathers, but females are usually indistinguishable from yellowhammers.
18 The song of the cock yellowhammer is a series of short notes, gradually increasing in volume and followed by one or two more protracted notes.
19 Yellowhammer males learn their songs from their fathers, and over time, regional dialects have developed, with minor differences to the conclusion of the basic song;
20 The pine bunting and yellowhammer are so closely related that each responds to the other's song.
21 The male yellowhammer's song is more attractive to females, and is one reason for the dominance of that species where the ranges overlap.
22 The yellowhammer breeds across the Palearctic between the 16–20 °C (61–68 °F) July isotherms.
23 Most European yellowhammers winter within their breeding range, only the far north being vacated, although some birds move south of their breeding range in Spain, Italy, and other Mediterranean countries.
24 The yellowhammer has occurred as a vagrant in the United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Kuwait, Morocco, Malta, the Himalayas (winter vagrant from northern Afghanistan to central Nepal), the Balearic Islands, Iceland, and the Faroes.
25 Yellowhammers of the British and Irish race, E. c. caliginosa, were introduced to New Zealand by local acclimatisation societies in 1862, and soon spread over the main islands.
26 Populations of yellowhammer have also been introduced to the Falkland Islands and South Africa.
27 The yellowhammer is a bird of dry, open country, preferably with a range of vegetation types and some trees from which to sing.
28 Yellowhammers are monogamous and breed when aged one year.
29 When not breeding, yellowhammers forage in flocks that can occasionally number hundreds of birds, and often contain other buntings and finches.
30 The yellowhammer adds invertebrates to its diet in the breeding season, particularly as food for its growing chicks.