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1 The Sasanian rock reliefs are along the road that connects the castle and the city and will be discussed on a separate page.
2 The Parthian empire was to last until 224 CE, when it was succeeded by the Sasanian empire.
3 There was a Zoroastrian fire sanctuary and a bridge, which still stands on a foundation from the Sasanian age and resembles the bridge at Shushtar.
4 Later, at least one tower was used as a Sasanian burial site.
5 This relief is the oldest and largest of all Sasanian rock reliefs.
6 In the Sasanian Empire, Mazdak called for an egalitarian society and the abolition of monarchy, only to be soon executed by Emperor Kavad I. In Basra, religious sects preached against the state.
7 The Sasanian Empire turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state in 252, while King Urnayr officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century.
8 Despite being one of the chief vassals of the Sasanian emperor, the Albanian king had only a semblance of authority, and the Sasanian marzban (military governor) held most civil, religious, and military authority.
9 In the first half of the 7th century, Caucasian Albania, as a vassal of the Sasanians, came under nominal Muslim rule due to the Muslim conquest of Persia.
10 The Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sasanians and Byzantines from Transcaucasia and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after Christian resistance led by King Javanshir, was suppressed in 667.
11 In the waning years of the Empire, Egypt fell to the Sasanian Persian army (618–628), was recaptured by the Roman Emperor Heraclius (629–639), and then was finally captured by Muslim Rashidun army in 639–641, ending Roman rule.
12 As the western gate to central Mesopotamia, it was fortified by the Sasanian ruler Shapur I (r. 241–272) to shield his capital, Ctesiphon, from the Roman Empire.
13 it was sacked and burned after an agreement with its garrison in March 363 by the Roman emperor Julian during his invasion of the Sasanian Empire.
14 With Arabia having united under a single centralised state with a formidable military, the region could now be viewed as a potential threat to the neighbouring Byzantine and Sasanian empires.
15 From the end of the seventh century BC (when the Neo-Assyrian state fell) to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers such as the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, the final part of which period saw Mesopotamia become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East.
16 The region of Assyria fell under the successive control of the Median Empire of 678 to 549 BC, the Achaemenid Empire of 550 to 330 BC, the Macedonian Empire (late 4th century BC), the Seleucid Empire of 312 to 63 BC, the Parthian Empire of 247 BC to 224 AD, the Roman Empire (from 116 to 118 AD) and the Sasanian Empire of 224 to 651 AD. The Arab Islamic conquest of the area in the mid-seventh century finally dissolved Assyria (Assuristan) as a single entity, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people (by now Christians) gradually became an ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious minority in the Assyrian homeland, surviving there to this day as an indigenous people of the region.
17 In 226, Assyria was largely taken over by the Sasanian Empire.
18 During the Sasanian period, much of what had once been Babylonia in southern Mesopotamia was incorporated into Assyria, and in effect the whole of Mesopotamia came to be known as Asōristān. Parts of Assyria appear to have been semi independent as late as the latter part of the 4th century AD, with a king named Sennacherib II reputedly ruling the northern reaches in 370s AD. Centuries of constant warfare between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Empire left both empires exhausted, which made both of them open to loss in a war against the Muslim Arab army, under the newfound Rashidun Caliphate.
19 Shapur I (241–272), the second shahinshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian dynasty, occupied Roman territory, advancing as far as Antioch in 260, and deported eastward much of the population to strengthen the economy of his own empire.
20 Between 150 BC and 226 AD, Assyria changed hands between the Parthian Empire and the Romans until coming under the rule of the Sasanian Empire from 226–651, where it was known as Asōristān. A number of at least partly neo-Assyrian kingdoms existed in the area between in the late classical and early Christian period also;
21 The Nabataeans, an Arab people, formed their Kingdom near Petra in the 3rd century BC. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires.
22 Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids begin to appear in the south Syrian deserts and southern Jordan from the mid 3rd century CE onwards, during the mid to later stages of the Roman Empire and Sasanian Empire.
23 Also, before them the Nabataeans of Jordan and arguably the Emessans, Edessans, and Hatrans all appear to have been an Aramaic speaking ethnic Arabs who came to rule much of the pre-Islamic fertile crescent often as vassals of the two rival empires, the Sasanian (Persian) and the Byzantine (Eastern Roman).
24 The term "Old Aramaic" is used to describe the varieties of the language from its first known use until the point roughly marked by the rise of the Sasanian Empire (224 AD), dominating the influential, eastern dialect region.
25 These were exported first through the Red Sea, and later through the Persian Gulf, thereby bringing a period of economic and cultural exchange between the Indians, the Sasanian Empire and the Persian merchants before Islam was founded in the Arabian peninsula.
26 The ethnic diversity is depicted in the painting in the clothes (kaftans, Sasanian helmets, round caps), hairdos and skin colors.
27 He was born and lived in Kafri, Asoristan, in the Sasanian Empire.
28 15 years after the Battle of Nahāvand, they controlled all Sasanian domains except southern and eastern Afghanistan.
29 15 years after the Battle of Nahāvand, the Arabs controlled all Sasanian domain except the parts of Afghanistan and Makran.
30 Khorasan was the eastern satrapy of Sasanian Empire, containing Balkh and Herat.