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1 Anarchist ideas have been influential in the development of the Zapatistas in Mexico and the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, more commonly known as Rojava, a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.
2 Direct democracy as a government system currently exists in the Swiss cantons of Appenzell Innerrhoden and Glarus, the Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities, communities affiliated with the CIPO-RFM, the Bolivian city councils of FEJUVE, and Kurdish cantons of Rojava.
3 Recent history of the Kurds includes numerous genocides and rebellions, along with ongoing armed conflicts in Turkish Kurdistan, Iranian Kurdistan, Rojava, and Iraqi Kurdistan.
4 The Syrian Kurds started the Rojava Revolution in 2013.
5 A Kurdish woman fighter from Rojava.
6 The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (NES), commonly referred to as Rojava, has a population of around two million.
7 While most of the conflict has taken place in Turkish Kurdistan, it has also involved forays into neighbouring Iraqi Kurdistan as well as more recent attacks on the PKK-affiliated Syrian Democratic Forces in Rojava.
8 Bookchin's ideas, honed from the 1960s to the early 2000s, had an influence on multiple modern strains of anarchism and libertarian socialism, including the economics of Rojava.
9 A better modern example at a societal level is the autonomous region of Rojava, the autonomous northern region of Syria.
10 Largely cut off from international trade, facing multiple enemies, and striving for a society based on communalism, Rojava's government and constitution emphasize economic self-sufficiency directed by neighborhood and village councils.
11 Rojavan society and economics are influenced by Bookchin's ideas, including the emphasis on local and regional autarky.
12 In Syrian Kurdistan, in the cantons of Rojava, a new model of polity is exercised by the Kurdish freedom movement, that of Democratic confederalism.
13 This bottom-up political structure coexists with the democratic self-administration, as organized in the Charter of the Social Contract adopted by the cantons of Rojava in 2014.
14 Compared to other experiences categorized as ones of direct democracy such as OWS, the Rojava experiment presents only several elements of direct democracy, namely the organization of the self-governing communes in popular assemblies where everybody can participate, the confederation of these communes through imperative and recallable mandates, the rotation of charges (often biannually) and the absence of a centralized power.
15 . In practice, Rojava is organized on a system of "Four Level Councils": the Commune, the Neighborhood, the District, and the People's Council of West Kurdistan.
16 The Rojava cantons are governed through a combination of district and civil councils.
17 Öcalan's philosophy of democratic confederalism is a strong influence on the political structures of Rojava, an autonomous polity formed in Syria in 2011.
18 Today Manbij is self-administered by the Manbij City Council, co-chaired by Sheikh Farouk al-Mashi and Salih Haji Mohammed, as part of Shahba region within the de facto autonomous Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava framework.
19 While public administration including public schools has regained secular normalcy after the ISIL episode, a reconciliation committee to overcome rifts created by the civil war was formed, and international humanitarian aid has been delivered, the democratic confederalist political program of Rojava is driving political and societal transformations in terms of direct democracy and gender equality.
20 His ideas have influenced social movements since the 1960s, including the New Left, the anti-nuclear movement, the anti-globalization movement, Occupy Wall Street, and more recently, the democratic confederalism of Rojava.
21 These vehicles have seen deployments in Rojava, Syria in Operation Inherent Resolve.
22 With the Syrian Civil War and the Rojava conflict from 2011, the city grew into a major political role, being the de facto capital of the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (AANES).
23 While prior to the Rojava conflict, there had been no institution of higher education in northeastern Syria, in September 2014 the Mesopotamian Social Sciences Academy started teaching.
24 The University of Rojava initially comprised four faculties: Medicine, Engineering, Sciences, and Arts and Humanities.