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1 Several anarchists from Petrograd and Moscow fled to Ukraine, notably leading to the Kronstadt rebellion and Nestor Makhno's struggle in the Free Territory.
2 It was officially known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, and it was under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno.
3 Was it necessary to revert to the procedures of the Inquisition?" The Cheka was also used against the armed anarchist Black Army of Nestor Makhno in Ukraine.
4 In May 1919, two Cheka agents sent to assassinate Makhno were caught and executed.
5 To date, the best-known examples of an anarcho-communist society (i.e. established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon) are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution, where anarchists such as Nestor Makhno worked to create and defend anarcho-communism through the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine from 1918 before being conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921.
6 In Ukraine the anarcho-communist guerrilla leader Nestor Makhno led an independent anarchist army in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War.
7 A commander of the peasant Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, also known as the Anarchist Black Army, Makhno led a guerrilla campaign opposing both the Bolshevik "Reds" and monarchist "Whites".
8 After successfully repelling Austro-Hungarian, White, and Ukrainian Nationalist forces, the Makhnovists militia forces and anarchist communist territories in the Ukraine were eventually crushed by Bolshevik military forces.
9 While anarchist communists such as Peter Kropotkin and Murray Bookchin believed that the members of such a society would voluntarily perform all necessary labour because they would recognize the benefits of communal enterprise and mutual aid, other anarchist communists such as Nestor Makhno and Ricardo Flores Magón argue that all those able to work in an anarchist communist society should be obligated to do so, excepting groups like children, the elderly, the sick, or the infirm.
10 Bolsheviks Puppet states: Russian Republic(1917) White Guard: Makhnovia(1920–21) Supported by: China(1921) Red Army:5,498,000 (peak) White Army: 1,023,000 (peak) Supported by: ~1,500,000 ~35,000.
11 In addition, rival militant socialists, notably Makhnovia anarchists and Left SRs, as well as non-ideological Green armies, fought against both the Reds and the Whites.
12 More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno.
13 In July 1919 the Red Army suffered another reverse after a mass defection of units in the Crimea to the anarchist Black Army under Nestor Makhno, enabling anarchist forces to consolidate power in Ukraine.
14 An attempted invasion of southern Ukraine was rebuffed by the Black Army under Makhno's command.
15 Pursued into the Crimea by Makhno's troops, Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea.
16 While the White armies were being routed in Central Russia and the east, they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine and the Crimea.
17 Despite this setback, Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine.
18 After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest.
19 After the defeat of Wrangel, the Red Army immediately repudiated its 1920 treaty of alliance with Nestor Makhno and attacked the anarchist Black Army;
20 the campaign to liquidate Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists began with an attempted assassination of Makhno by Cheka agents.
21 Peter Andreyevich Arshinov (Russian: Пётр Андре́евич Арши́нов), also P. Marin (Russian: П. Ма́рин) (1886–1937), was a Ukrainian anarchist revolutionary and intellectual who chronicled Nestor Makhno's 1919–1921 uprising.
22 There he met fellow convict and anarchist leader Nestor Makhno.
23 While Makhno returned to Ukraine, Arshinov joined the Moscow Federation of Anarchist Groups.
24 Arshinov returned to Ukraine to participate in Makhno's 1919 Makhnovist insurrection, which lasted until 1921.
25 In 1923 he published his "History of the Makhnovist Movement", which was used as evidence for defence in the court proceedings against Nestor Makhno in Paris, and helped obtain his exoneration.. Arshinov got in contact with Communist leader Sergo Ordzhonikidze, who promised to help Arshinov if he formally broke all ties with anarchism.
26 Leon Trotsky, as the supreme commander of the Red Army, hastily concluded an agreement with Nestor Makhno's anarchist Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (the 'Black Army') for mutual support.
27 Makhno duly turned his Black Army east and led it against Denikin's extended lines of supply, forcing the Whites to retreat.
28 Meanwhile, the Soviet government immediately tore up its agreement with Makhno and attacked his anarchist forces.
29 After a seesaw series of battles in which both sides gained ground, Trotsky's more numerous and better equipped Red Army troops decisively defeated and dispersed Makhno's Black Army.
30 This idea was repeated after the Russian revolution by anarchists like Kropotkin and Makhno, as well as some Marxists.