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1 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), combines autism and less severe forms of the condition, including Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) into the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
2 Under the DSM-5, autism is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities.
3 In May 2013, the DSM-5 was released, updating the classification for pervasive developmental disorders.
4 A diagnosis of schizophrenia is not made at this time as it takes longer to determine by both DSM-5 and ICD-11, and only around 60% of those presenting with a first episode psychosis will later be diagnosed with schizophrenia.
5 According to the DSM-5 criteria, mania is distinguished from hypomania by length, as hypomania is present if elevated mood symptoms are present for at least four consecutive days, and mania is present if such symptoms are present for more than a week.
6 Although the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing unipolar and bipolar episodes are the same, some clinical features are more common in the latter, including increased sleep, sudden onset and resolution of symptoms, significant weight gain or loss, and severe episodes after childbirth.
7 The most widely used criteria for diagnosing bipolar disorder are from the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Edition (ICD-10).
8 The DSM-5, published in 2013, includes further and more accurate specifiers compared to its predecessor, the DSM-IV-TR. This work has influenced the upcoming eleventh revision of the ICD, which includes the various diagnoses within the bipolar spectrum of the DSM-V. Several rating scales for the screening and evaluation of bipolar disorder exist, including the Bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale, Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the General Behavior Inventory and the Hypomania Checklist.
9 The DSM-5 and ICD-11 lists three specific subtypes: When relevant, specifiers for peripartum onset and with rapid cycling should be used with any subtype.
10 The DSM-5 has established a diagnosis—disruptive mood dysregulation disorder—that covers children with long-term, persistent irritability that had at times been misdiagnosed as having bipolar disorder, distinct from irritability in bipolar disorder that is restricted to discrete mood episodes.
11 Following campaigns from advocacy organizations including the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom, the current version of the DSM, DSM-5, excludes consensual BDSM from diagnosis when the sexual interests cause no harm or distress.
12 The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was released in May 2013.
13 The categories for specifiers will be removed in DSM-5 and criterion A will add or there are at least 3 symptoms of major depression of which one of the symptoms is depressed mood or anhedonia.
14 For more information regarding proposed revisions to the DSM-5, please visit their website at dsm5.org.
15 According to the DSM-5, "Catatonia Associated with Another Mental Disorder (Catatonia Specifier)" (code 293.89 [F06.1]) is diagnosed if the clinical picture is dominated by at least three of the following: Other disorders (additional code 293.89 [F06.1] to indicate the presence of the co-morbid catatonia): If catatonic symptoms are present but they do not form the catatonic syndrome, a medication- or substance-induced aetiology should first be considered.
16 however, DSM-5 does not have this restriction, and opens it to women and men, regardless of their sexual orientation.
17 Transvestic fetishism is a paraphilia and a psychiatric diagnosis in the DSM-5 version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
18 Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder is a subclass of the DSM-5 diagnosis of substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder.
19 The American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 does not include the diagnosis of a caffeine addiction but proposes criteria for the disorder for more study.
20 The ICD-11 includes caffeine dependence as a distinct diagnostic category, which closely mirrors the DSM-5’s proposed set of criteria for “caffeine-use disorder”. Caffeine use disorder refers to dependence on caffeine characterized by failure to control caffeine consumption despite negative physiological consequences.
21 The APA, which published the DSM-5, acknowledged that there was sufficient evidence in order to create a diagnostic model of caffeine dependence for the DSM-5, but they noted that the clinical significance of the disorder is unclear.
22 Due to this inconclusive evidence on clinical significance, the DSM-5 classifies caffeine-use disorder as a “condition for further study”. Tolerance to the effects of caffeine occurs for caffeine induced elevations in blood pressure and the subjective feelings of nervousness.
23 The DSM-5 also includes other caffeine-induced disorders consisting of caffeine-induced anxiety disorder, caffeine-induced sleep disorder and unspecified caffeine-related disorders.
24 According to the DSM-5, caffeine intoxication may be diagnosed if five (or more) of the following symptoms develop after recent consumption of caffeine: restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushed face, diuresis (increased production of urine), gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, rambling flow of thought and speech, tachycardia (increased heart rate) or cardiac arrythmia, periods of inexhaustibility, and psychomotor agitation.
25 Coprophilia is a paraphilia (DSM-5), where the object of sexual interest is feces, and may be associated with coprophagia.
26 DSM-5 uses "specific").
27 Both DSM-5 and ICD-10 mark out typical (main) depressive symptoms.
28 According to DSM-5, there are two main depressive symptoms- a depressed mood and loss of interest/pleasure in activities (anhedonia).
29 Major depressive disorder is classified as a mood disorder in DSM-5. The diagnosis hinges on the presence of single or recurrent major depressive episodes.
30 Bereavement is no longer an exclusion criterion in DSM-5, and it is now up to the clinician to distinguish between normal reactions to a loss and MDD.